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How does ARP know the ip adress of where it needs to look?

Hi, I'm only a beginner and ARP is a little confusing, I understand a bit about how ARP works, but I'm very confused how ARP knows what IP address it needs to look for? Especially if the ARP cache is empty? If 1 person wants to send a file to another computer on the same network it needs the MAC and i don't understand how it knows what IP address it needs to ask for the MAC? i hope this makes sense and someone can help.

Many thanks