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The github site for your driver says this:

 Recommendation: Do not buy adapters based on this chipset. You will be disappointed. Adapters with the new mt7921au chipset will meet or exceed the performance of this chipset in WiFi 5 AC 5 GHz mode plus you get WiFi 6e capability.

Some comments:

My connection is associated to channel 11, but Wireshark only allows me to capture on channel 1. Whenever I choose a different option in the dropdown from Wireless Toolbar, it immediately switches back to 1.

This is a showstopper! If you can't capture on the channel you are interested in then you will never get the traffic you are looking for. This is a system issue, not Wireshark, and is common. The wireless toolbar is deprecated and has been removed on most platforms as far as I can tell; Linux packaging systems tend to have older versions of Wireshark so it might still be around. Anyway, it probably still works if present except for the likely underlying cause: you have interfering processes taking control of the adapter. I know you said you killed interfering processes, but I would guess you didn't get them all. NetworkManager is the most common culprit - you can tell nm to ignore this interface. To work around this until you figure it out, move your AP to channel 1.

Handshakes are generally not detected, no matter how many times I disconnect and reconnect.

Consistent with capturing on the wrong channel. This could have other root causes, too, but you have to fix the most basic one first.

To summarize, I would suggest:

  1. Figure out how to get a stable channel selected
  2. Obtain a better adapter based on MediaTek USB chipset
  3. Consider capturing on a dedicated platform (even a raspberry pi or similar) rather than try and pass thru to a VM
  4. Work on iw and related commands to put adapter in monitor mode and adjust settings manually, if needed to get better feedback as to issues

Here is a recent discussion similar to this with an RTL chipset where the issue is isolated to the capture device.