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It might help to differentiate between "ping" and ICMP.
Ping is a software tool that uses ICMP messages to poll (request/reply) an IP address.
So at the IP level there is no difference.

What is different is the name resolution that takes place at a higher level to convert the URL to an IP address.
That could be a local host file, an entry in the local DNS cache or may require sending a request to a DNS server.