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Everything is based in the GPL version 2. What it comes down to is that it's a license on distribution, i.e., if you distribute modified code, you are required to provide the modified source code.

Now, issue 1 is: does the GPLv2 apply? That is defined by the term 'derived work'. In short, anything you change in the program, or link to the program is governed by this license.

Second issue is: are you distributing it? Do you make the modified program available for others (outside your company)? If yes, then the provisions in the license apply.

The third issue is: how to provide the modified source code? Also here the GPLv2 states that you must offer to provide the modified source code for no more than the cost it takes to provide it. This gives you a lot of freedom on how to do it, but you must make the offer for the duration stated.

So that's it. Oh, and the license also applies to the changes you make to the GPL'd program as well.

It looks like case 1 you're making a derived work, so yes, all provision of the GPLv2 apply. I'm not sure how application X interacts with your modified Wireshark version. If it's through 'normal Operating System mechanisms', like a pipe or shared file, than the GPL does not extend across that interface. Code linked (either dynamic or static) to Wireshark is covered by the GPL.

It looks like case 2 is about using the GPL'd program, but not changing or linking to it. The GPL does not apply to the program input or output, so that is a way it use it without your own program being affected by the GPL. It's sometimes called 'at arm's length'.

And to be sure: I Am Not A Lawyer, so these statements have no value in itself.